Overview of Afghanistan Weather
Afghanistan is a landlocked country located in Central Asia. The country has a continental climate, with hot summers and cold winters. The capital, Kabul, experiences a moderate climate, with temperatures ranging from -4°C to 27°C. The average annual precipitation in Kabul is 254mm.
The northern parts of Afghanistan are generally cooler than the south, due to the higher elevation. The province of Badakhshan has a subtropical climate, with warm summers and cool winters. The province of Nuristan is even cooler, with temperatures often below freezing in the winter.
The Afghan climate is heavily influenced by the Asian monsoon. From late May to early October, the southwest monsoon brings moist air from the Arabian Sea, resulting in increased precipitation. This is the wettest time of year for most of the country. From November to April, the dry northwest wind blows from Central Asia, resulting in little precipitation. This is the driest time of year.
The Afghan climate is also influenced by the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO). During an El Niño event, the southwest monsoon is weaker than normal, resulting in below-average precipitation. This often leads to drought conditions in Afghanistan. La Niña events have the opposite effect, with above-average precipitation.